|INSTITUTE OF NORTH INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGICAL PROBLEMS
was formed in June 27, 1989, integrated in the system of the Kola
Science Centre, Russian Academy of Sciences.
The aim for establishing the Institute was elaboration of scientific basement for ecological optimization of nature resources use in the North on the example of the Kola Peninsula as the most developed mining-metallurgical region of North Russia.
The Institute basic directions:
The Institute staff is 88, including 36 research workers with 5 professors and 16 doctors of sciences.
On the foundation of original approaches to use a net of certain sites one managed to give a detail multidisciplined analysis of biogeochemical cycles for mineral elements Ca, Mg, K, Mn, Al, Fe, Zn, Ni, Cu, S, P, N,) in North forests under conditions of air emission pollution. After having determined the dependence of organic matter dynamics and biogeochemical cycles of mineral elements from the state type of the forest biosenosis, classified as a stage of its technogenic transformation we managed to define basic types of technogenic transformation in the North forest biogeosenosis; background, defoliated, technogenic thin forest and technogenic barren.
There has been suggested a conception of chemical composition in dominating species of forest plants in the North under conditions of industrial pollution emissions from the mining-metallurgical complex. The plants intensively uptake the pollutants (sulphur, nickel, copper, ferrum) and more mobile elements ( nitrogen, phosphate, potassium), at that, the uptake of Ca, Mg, Mn and Zn is decreasing.
The Dose-effect dependencies, well calculated, between summary index of multifactor pollution and physiological fish response (geomathological and pathologoanatomical indexes) made a basement for introduced strategy for limiting loads from smelters over the Arctic basin catchment.
Some approaches for assessment ecological risk, created by heavy metals' accumulation in bottom sediments of the lakes. One succeeded in defining some basic, non-specific and specific response of water communities to toxicofication, eutrophication, acidification in the Subarctic regions with well developed industrial complex. Some biological criteria for assessment aerotechnogenic water pollution with heavy metals and their acidification for testing when conducting monitoring. There has been made a map of critical loads of acid-forming matters and their exceedance for surface water within the Kola Peninsula regarding information obtained after having studied the water acidification according to a singular methodical scheme together with Fennoscandia countries (Norway and Finland).
The whys and wherefores of the water quality assessment criteria under conditions of their industrial pollution have been justified. There was shown water ability for selfpurification and recovery under conditions of emission pollution abatement (on the example 15-20% decrease due to production volume reduction).
Regularities of heavy metals' accumulation in fish and morphopathological changes caused by this fact have been registered and proved. We recommended a set of indexes for liver, kidney, gills, skeleton used for assessment individium and fish population state.
We obtained original data on response of organisms and white fish populations Coregonus lavaretus (L) to subtoxical influence from industrial emissions. For the first time there has been found out the fish ability to maturation under extremely small for this species size and life cycle reduction. A set of specific indexes for ichthyological monitoring for water quality in the North was recommended.
Relying on these determined regularities of water quality and bottom sediments for industrially developed region within the Arctic basin - the Kola North there has been produced the analysis of migration, forms of living and transformation, sedimentation and bioaccumulation of anthropogenically formed elements. All this enabled us to reveal the specific development of eutrophication, acidification and conjugated to them a behaviour of toxic metals. Special methodics has been elaborated for defining integral index for water quality and assessment of multi-forming water ability as a factor of selfpurification ability.
There were suggested approaches for making a diagnosis of state and monitoring North forests, including
There was elaborated an idea of forming. Al-Fe-humus soil acidity under conditions of industrial air pollution by sulphur and heavy metals' compounds. There was studied a role of biogenic acidification and acid formation matters, invaded from industrial emission, while forming soil acidification. There was recorded a non-line character of changing the parameters of soil acidification and circulation of mineral elements regarding the distance from pollution sources.
There was characterized microbial component biomass, structure and diversity for Al-Fe-humus podzol soils within the tundra area of the Kola Peninsula while defining biogeochemical functions of micro-organisms in maintenance of Arctic ecosystems' homeostasis. There was found out, that biomass of Fungi mycelium predominates the bacteria biomass only in cumulative organogenic horizon. There were recorded some discrepancies in structure of microbe component and content of dominating species between Al-Fe-humus podzol tundra and taiga soils.
There was studied a mechanism of soil microbe component resistance under extreme nature and technogenic conditions. In ecosystems there is a biological mechanism, which decreases soil metallotoxicosis in a zone affected by large operating smelter. It is so-called multyfunction ability of species, involved in the ecosystem, and the organisms' ability to uptake oligotrophic matter.
It was recorded, that micro-organisms tolerant to metals are usually tolerant to acids.
In microbial soil communities, bearing high concentrations of heavy metals ( 1000-2000 mgkg-1 of copper and 2000-4000 mgkg-1 of nickel), there predominate acidophile species of micro-organisms.
There were studied physiological and biochemical characteristics of p.p.Penicillium and Phodotorula fungi and their high immobilization ability for heavy metals ( to 60% of copper and nickel from solutions ). Fungi were recommended for biopurification of industrial wastes and given to the All-Russia Collection of Micro-organisms ( Pushchino City )
On the basis of chemical analysis of hair composition there were detected regional peculiarities of micro-element status for the children' organism living in the cities not far from smelters in the Kola Peninsula. Those peculiarities are characterised by low levels of content of many essential trace elements and a slight content of regional prior environment pollutants: Ni, Cu., Co.
Reasoning from the physico-chemical modelling for leaching technogenic deposits, containing nepheline under anthropogenic precipitation influence, one managed to determine the conditions for composing second minerals (gibbsite, kaolinite, analcinite, natrolite) and water complexes (Na, Al, Si), allowing to make forecast of ecological consequences caused by long keeping the industrial wastes from treating factories and then to upgrade technological processes while making second processing.
The Institute introduced an efficient way for doing less harmful radionuclide solutions by immobilization them in hardly soluble compounds - the products of polymerisation of hardening dispersions (geopolymeric adsorbents) and adsorbents from nature minerals (Joint with Institute of chemistry, KSC, RAS)
There was created technological regiment for radionuclides' immobilization, using metallurgical slimes of magnesium-iron content and vermiculite as hardening mineral dispersions.
Last Update: 2000-04-28